The 2nd International Workshop on Complex Formations was held on May 9 2023 at Turin, Italy. Attendance was good and the Program was excellent. PDFs of six of the seven Lectures presented are now available at this site.
Progress! After several years of a barren “Gallery” page, a few photographs of bimrocks are now available on the Photos page. Many more will be presented as I hunt images and find time…
WHAT ARE BIMROCKS?
- block-in-matrix rocks
- mixtures of rocks composed of geotechnically significant blocks within a bonded matrix of finer texture
- melanges, fault rocks, weathered rocks, etc.
- geologically, spatially, and mechanically heterogeneous
- troublesome to geotechnical engineers, geologists, contractors and owners
ISN’T “BIMROCKS” A SILLY WORD?
No. It is a word with serious intent.
“Bimrocks” is a word that I coined in 1992 for my PhD Oral Examination. “Bimrocks” is not a geological word, but simply describes the vast range of geological fabrics of strong blocks mixed with weaker matrix. Since there are no geological shadings to the word, engineers can focus on the characterization challenges rather than fuss about the geological words and the geological origins of bimrocks.
ARE BIMROCKS RARE?
No, they are very common.
Bimrocks include many complex geological mixtures of relatively strong blocks surrounded by weaker matrix: fault rocks, weathered rocks, lahars and melanges. Chaotic melanges are the most difficult bimrocks to characterize. Personal note: a Northern California melange had a major impact in my life, as described in this story.
ARE BIMSOILS THE SAME AS BIMROCKS?
No. They are not.
Bimsoils are analogous to bimrocks but are composed of blocks embedded in soil (unbonded or uncemented materials) with contacts between blocks and matrix that are “unwelded” or are weak or have no strength. Bimsoils include weathered rocks, saprolites, lahars, debris flows, and colluvium.
ARE BIMSOILS AND BIMROCKS THE SAME AS SRMs?
No. But all are “bim materials” or “bimunits”.
In the last decade hundreds of papers have been published about SRMs (Soil-Rock Mixtures) generally by researchers describing widespread colluvium/debris flow deposits in China, in which the largest block sizes are often limited to about a meter. Because the SRMs are generally uncemented with little strength between blocks and matrix, they are limited-scale bimsoils: bimsoils at laboratory scale but not at the scale of a 30 m high hillside or excavation (because the blocks at that scale have little geomechanical effect).
Nevertheless: SRM researchers persistently and wrongly claim that SRMs include bimrocks (such as melanges or fault rocks), and then inappropriately incorporate the many findings on bimrocks (which are rocks with blocks sometimes 100s of meters in size) ) into their analyses of SRMs (which are soils with blocks less than about 1 meter). Look at some photos of melanges, to see that they are not colluvium…
See more thoughts on SRMs and persistent declarations that bimrocks are SRMS.
In my opinion, bimrocks, bimsoils and SRMs are all “bim materials”. Maybe a better term is “bimunits” as introduced by Napoli et al, 2022 in Napoli M.L, A. Festa and M. Barbero, 2022; “Practical classification of geotechnically complex formations with block-in-matrix fabrics“). Their paper is an excellent overview of the complexity of bim materials/bimunits – the figures provide at a glance an appreciation of the range of complexity (see here for a couple of the collections of images).
SO WHAT? WHO CARES?
It is always good to ask these questions!
Bimrocks and bimsoils (and yes, SRMs) – (indeed all, bimunits) universally frustrate the economic and accurate characterization, design and construction of civil engineering works. Bimrocks and bimsoils are troublesome to geopractitioners, who include geological engineers, geotechnical engineers and engineering geologists. Owners and contractors care a lot, too – they lose money because of the troubles, although their lawyers make money helping to resolve the troubles.
NEED BASIC INFORMATION ON BIMROCKS?
You are at a helpful site!
Try the resources listed below. More references are available at the Papers, Presentations and Field Trips pages, (NB: there is much redundancy/duplication in resources at this site.
- A General Solution for Estimating the Stability of Bimslopes (paper, 2022)
- “Practical classification of geotechnically complex formations with block-in-matrix fabrics” (paper, 2022),
- Investigation of Virtual Bimrocks to Estimate 3D Volumetric Block Proportions from 1D Boring Measurements (paper, 2022)
- 25 Years of Progress in Characterizing Melanges, Bimrocks, and Similar Rock-Soil Mixtures (Lecture, 2019)
- Field Trip Guide provides snap shot views of San Francisco area bimrocks (2018)
- Geopractitioner Approaches to Working With Anti-Social Mélanges, detailed book chapter Review of melanges and bimrocks (2011)
- “Geotechnical and Geological Engineering with Melanges, Fault Rocks and Other Bimrocks” taught at the National University of Columbia at Medellín, Colombia on September 18-22, 2017
- Introduction to Bimrocks (Lecture, 2006) (25 MB) an old-fashioned style of PowerPoint presentation on bimrock basics, but with animated graphics
- Presentation Notes (2006) abundant, very detailed notes that are useful as a guides to the “Introduction to Bimrocks” Presentation as well as being a stand-alone resource
WHAT ELSE IS ON THIS WEBSITE?
The bimrock website provides papers, presentations, dissertations, posters, Short Courses and photographs by myself and others who have kindly given their permission for me to host their work. (The only other site like this one is my original bimrocks site hosted by Geoengineer.org – which remains in its original clunky format.)
Please contact me if you want to contribute content to this site. Note that I only post useful and well-presented material. Use the resources freely. Please credit authors! All resources are provided on the condition that they be used for the sole use, and for the non-commercial purpose, of scientific and engineering research.
Visit my bimrocks blog for infrequent thoughts, ideas, information and comments by myself and the occasional visitor.
Questions, comments, contributions? Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org